Tuesday, 4 February 2014

Bibliography [Desertification] Aftermath

IPS, C. (1997, October 07). Aftermath of desertification. Retrieved from http://www.ipsnews.net/1997/10/environment-debate-on-aftermath-of-desertification-meet/
(IPS, 1997)

Al, J. (2012, December 08). Fighting desertification in china. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/12/2012126123056457256.html
(Al, 2012)

College of Agriculture, Ganye, Adamawa State, Nigeria (26, December 2013). Impact of desertification on rural livelihood in ganye southeastern adamawa state, nigeria . Retrieved from http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jestft/papers/vol7-issue3/D0732631.pdf?id=7730
(College of Agriculture, Ganye, Adamawa State, Nigeria , 26)

Oceanworld. (2009, July 24). The dustbowl and aftermath. Retrieved from http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/environment-book/dustbowlandaftermath.html

emeralde, C. (2014, February 05). Desertification. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldecocity.com/Desertification.html

Bibliography [Desertification] Who is affected?

Roos, D. (2008, Decem 30). How desertification works. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/conservation/issues/desertification2.htm
(Roos, 2008)

Kevin Schunk , C. R. (2014, Febru 05). Causes and effects of desertification. Retrieved from http://desertificationb.tripod.com/id3.html
(Kevin Schunk , 2014)

Discovery Channel. (2014, Febru 05). Threats to biodiversity. Retrieved from http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/what-areas-affected-desertification
(Discovery Channel, 2014)

 Ed, K. (2013, April 19). Desertification crisis affecting 168 countries worldwide, study shows. Retrieved from http://ourworld.unu.edu/en/desertification-crisis-affecting-168-countries-worldwide-study-shows
(Ed, 2013)

Zafar , A. (2006, Decem 21). Desertification. Retrieved from http://www.greenfacts.org/en/desertification/l-3/3-impacts-desertification.htm
(Zafar , 2006)

Bibliography [Desertification] How does it occur ?

Desertification : How does it occur

1) Service Center, P. (1997, Octob 10). Desertification how does it occur. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/desertification/(Service Center, 1997)

2)Matsuura, K. (n.d.). Desertification how does it occur. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/mab/doc/ekocd/chapter3.html (Matsuura)

3)Nation, U. (n.d.). Desertification how does it occur.
Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/aboutun/copyright/(Nation)

4)UNCCD. (n.d.). Desertification how does it occur. Retrieved from http://www.unccd.int/en/Pages/default.aspx (UNCCD)

5)H. E. Dregne. (n.d.). Desertification how does it occur. Retrieved from http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/docs/002-193/002-193.html(H. E. Dregne)

Done by Ryan Hong






Sunday, 2 February 2014

Bibliography [Desertification] What causes desertification ?

1) Jocelyn, C. (2001, Febua 01). Desertification. Retrieved from http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/desertification.htm
(Jocelyn, 2001)

 2) Causes and effects of desertification. (2014, Febua 03). Retrieved from http://desertificationb.tripod.com/id3.html
("Causes and effects," 2014)

3) How does desertification occur?. (2014, Febua 03). Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/mab/doc/ekocd/chapter3.html
("How does desertification," 2014)

4) Koohafkan, A. P. (1996, May 03). Desertification, drought and their consequences. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/sd/epdirect/epan0005.htm
( Koohafkan, 1996)

5) Desertification. (2014, Febua 03). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/events/desertificationday/background.shtml
("Desertification," 2014)

Wednesday, 22 January 2014

Summary of Desertification

Short Summary of Desertification

Desertification occurs when:
  • the tree and plant cover that binds the soil is removed. It occurs when trees and bushes are stripped away for fuelwood and timber, or to clear land for cultivation.
  • animals eat away grasses and erode topsoil with their hooves.
  • intensive farming depletes the nutrients in the soil.
Wind and water erosion aggravate the damage, carrying away topsoil and leaving behind a highly infertile mix of dust and sand. It is the combination of these factors that transforms degraded land into desert.

Effects of Desertification :
- Infertile land
- Crack lands
- Global Warming
- Waste of land
- Endanger life forms
- Destruction of natural habitats

Saturday, 11 January 2014

21th Century Problem (Pollution in water)

Look at any ecosystem and there could be multiple forms of contamination—streams full of toxic chemicals from industrial processes, rivers overloaded with nutrients from farms, trash blowing away from landfills, city skies covered in smog. Even landscapes that appear pristine can experience the effects of pollution sources located hundreds or thousands of miles away.
Pollution may muddy landscapes, poison soils and waterways, or kill plants and animals. Humans are also regularly harmed by pollution. Long-term exposure to air pollution, for example, can lead to chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer and other diseases. Toxic chemicals that accumulate in top predators can make some species unsafe to eat. More than one billion people lack access to clean water and 2.4 billion don’t have adequate sanitation, putting them at risk of contracting deadly diseases.


21th Century Problems (Desertification)√

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is caused by a variety of factors, such as climate change and human activities. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem.


21th Century Problems(Housing)

In the recent, Singapore is facing the problem of housing shortage as well as high housing prices. Due to the limited land supply in Singapore, the demand for public housing has been increasing at a faster rate than the supply of public housing, resulting in sky high prices for public housing. It has been said by some that Singapore is following Hong Kong's footsteps.
The EIP(Ethnic Integration Policy)  limits the number of Chinese, Malay and Indian people living within a neighbourhood and within a HDB block of flats. This policy was made initially with the aim to promote racial cohesiveness in the multi-racial society of Singapore.However, this policy has restricted the type of buyers for the resale flats. It has a part to play in causing the housing prices to increase too.
  • Malays were usually selling at valuation price because they can only sell to fellow Malays
  • However, the Chinese sellers who are freeing up the Chinese quota, are free to set a higher price.
  • Chinese-owned flats (some) were sold at $80,000 above valuation. 

Inez, L. K. L. (2012, April 14). Singapore housing. Retrieved from http://housingproblemsinthe21stcentury.blogspot.sg/2012/04/singapore-housing.html\

(Inez, 2012)